top of page

About us

We are a biomedical technology start-up company focused on commercializing quantitative sensory testing (QST) technologies developed at the University of Michigan.  We also provide custom hardware and software solutions for research.  We were founded in 2013, in Ann Arbor, Michigan.


Our Technologies

Multimodal Automated Sensory Testing (MAST) system 
Patent 9,307,906

A point-of-care QST platform developed at the University of Michigan by Drs. Harte, Clauw, and Kruger to measure threshold and suprathreshold pain sensitivity easily and accurately in clinical studies.  It applies computer-controlled pressure stimuli to the thumbnail bed and records resulting perceptual responses. The system consists of a wirelessly connected control notebook, a touchscreen tablet for participant feedback, and battery-powered handheld stimulator.

MRI-Compatible MAST

A computer-controlled, MRI-compatible pressure pain stimulator. The system coordinates a programmed sequence of stimuli in synchronization with the imaging sequence. It is compatible with all MRI brands and models, and its integration with E-prime or other presentation software provides instructions, visual cues, and/or collection of participant feedback during testing. The system consists of a control computer, pneumatic pressure generator, and a MRI-compatible thumbnail pressure stimulator (custom stimulators for other body sites also available).

Our technologies have been used in a number of research studies:

R. Treister, O. Lawal, J. Shecter, N. Khurana, J. Bothmer, M. Field, S.E. Harte, G.H. Kruger, N.P. Katz (2018). Accurate pain reporting training diminishes the placebo response: results from a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. PLoS ONE 13(5).

S.E. Harte, A. Schrepf, R. Gallop, G.H. Kruger, H. Lai, S. Sutcliffe, S. Haroutounian, M. Halvorson, R.E. Harris, J. Farrar, F. Tu, R. Landis, D.J. Clauw (2019). Quantitative Assessment of Non-Pelvic Pressure Pain Sensitivity in Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A MAPP Research Network Study. Pain 160(6):1270-1280.

Landis JR, Williams DA, Lucia MA, Clauw DJ, Naliboff BD, et al., and MAPP Research Network Study Group. (2014). The MAPP research network: design, patient characterization and operations. BMC Urol 14: 58.

Yang CC, Weinfurt KP, Merion RM, Kirkali Z, et al. (2016). The symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction research network. J Urol 196: 146-52. PMID: 26784646

Wasserman R, Hassett A, Harte SE, Gosling J, Malinoff HL, Berland DW, Zollars J, Moser SE, Brummett C. (2015). Pressure pain sensitivity in patients with suspected opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Region Anesth Pain M 40:687-93. PMID: 26469365

Schrepf A, Bradely CS, O’Donnell M, Luo Y, Harte SE, Kreder K, Lutgendorf SK. (2015). Toll-like Receptor 4 and comorbid pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome:  A multidisciplinary approach to the study of chronic pelvic pain research network study. Brain Behav Immun 49: 66-74. PMID: 25771510

Harte SE, Ichesco EA, Hampson J, Peltier SJ, Schmidt-Wilcke T, Clauw DJ, Harris RE. (2016). Pharmacologic attenuation of cross-modal sensory augmentation within the chronic pain insula. Pain, 157: 1933-45. PMID: 27101425 

Ichesco E, Puiu T, Hampson J, Kairys AE, Clauw DJ, Harte SE, Peltier SJ, Harris RE, Schmidt-Wilcke T. (2016). Altered fMRI resting state connectivity in individuals with fibromyalgia on acute pain stimulation. Eur J Pain 20:1079-89. PMID: 26773435

Harte SE, Mitra M, Ichesco EA, Halvorson ME, Clauw DJ, Shih AJ, Kruger GH. (2013) Development and validation of a pressure-type automated quantitative sensory testing system for point-of-care pain assessment. Med Biol Eng Comput 51(6): 633-644. PMID: 23381890

Harper D, Ichesco EA, Schrepf A, Clauw DJ, Harris RE, Harte SE. 2018. Resting functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray is associated with normal inhibition and pathological facilitation in conditioned pain modulation. J Pain (Epub ahead of print). PMID: 29360608 

1 / 1

Please reload

Our technologies are also being used for research by a number of institutions:

Our Team


Grant Kruger, Ph.D.

Co-Founder – Engineering

Dr Kruger received his doctorate in Electrical Engineering: Intelligent Manufacturing Systems in 2006, while also working as a lecturer in Mechatronic Systems. In 2007 he joined the S.M. Wu Manufacturing Research Center, as a scientist, in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Michigan. For the last 10-years he has performed research in biomedical information systems. His expertise encompasses manufacturing, physiologic monitoring, robotics, ultrasound, embedded systems, signal and image processing and prototype manufacturing.

Steven Harte, Ph.D.

Co-Founder – Neuroscience

Dr. Harte is neuroscientist with over twenty years of experience studying sensory physiology, affect, and pain measurement.  He currently serves as Director of Sensory Science at the University of Michigan Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center within the Department of Anesthesiology.

Paul Luzynski, B.H.A.

Business Manager

Paul Luzynski is a practice manager for The Villages Health, a multi-specialty health care system, located in The Villages, FL. The Villages Health provides primary and specialty care to residents of The Villages and the surrounding areas.  The Villages is the largest retirement community in the U.S with a population of over 125,000 residents.  Paul obtained his bachelor’s degree in Health Services Administration from the University of Central Florida.  He is originally from Michigan, but has called central Florida home for the past 15 years.

bottom of page